Tuesday, March 10, 2020

World War II Fighter Grumman F6F Hellcat

World War II Fighter Grumman F6F Hellcat Having begun production of their successful F4F Wildcat fighter, Grumman began work on a successor aircraft in the months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. In creating the new fighter, Leroy Grumman and his chief engineers, Leon Swirbul and Bill Schwendler, sought to improve upon their previous creation by designing an aircraft which was more powerful with better performance. The result was a preliminary design for an entirely new aircraft rather than an enlarged F4F. Interested in a follow-on aircraft to the F4F, the US Navy signed a contract for a prototype on June 30, 1941. With the US entry into World War II in December 1941, Grumman began utilizing data from the F4Fs early combats against the Japanese. By assessing the Wildcats performance against the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, Grumman was able to design its new aircraft to better counter the nimble enemy fighter. To aid in this process, the company also consulted noted combat veterans such as Lieutenant Commander Butch OHare who provided insight based on his firsthand experiences in the Pacific. The initial prototype, designated XF6F-1, was intended to be powered by the Wright R-2600 Cyclone (1,700 hp), however, information from testing and the Pacific led it to be given the more powerful 2,000 hp Pratt Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp turning a three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller. A Cyclone-powered F6F first flew on June 26, 1942, while the first Double Wasp-equipped aircraft (XF6F-3) followed on July 30. In early trials, the latter showed a 25% improvement in performance. Though somewhat similar in appearance to the F4F, the new F6F Hellcat was much larger with a low-mounted wing and higher cockpit to improve visibility. Armed with six .50 cal. M2 Browning machine guns, the aircraft was intended to be highly durable and possessed a wealth of armor to protect the pilot and vital parts of the engine as well as self-sealing fuel tanks. Other changes from the F4F included powered, retractable landing gear which had a wide stance to improve the aircrafts landing characteristics. Production and Variants Moving into production with the F6F-3 in late 1942, Grumman quickly showed that the new fighter was easy to build. Employing around 20,000 workers, Grummans plants began to produce Hellcats at a rapid rate. When Hellcat production ended in November 1945, a total of 12,275 F6Fs had been built. During the course of production, a new variant, the F6F-5, was developed with production commencing in April 1944. This possessed a more powerful R-2800-10W engine, a more streamlined cowling, and numerous other upgrades including a flat armored-glass front panel, spring-loaded control tabs, and a reinforced tail section. The aircraft was also modified for use as the F6F-3/5N night fighter. This variant carried the AN/APS-4 radar in a fairing built into the starboard wing. Pioneering naval night fighting, F6F-3Ns claimed their first victories in November 1943. With the arrival of the F6F-5 in 1944, a night fighter variant was developed from the type. Employing the same AN/APS-4 radar system as the F6F-3N, the F6F-5N also saw some changes to the aircrafts armament with some replacing the inboard .50 cal machine guns with a pair of 20 mm cannon. In addition to the night fighter variants, some F6F-5s were fitted with camera equipment to serve as reconnaissance aircraft (F6F-5P).​ Handling Versus the Zero Largely intended for defeating the A6M Zero, the F6F Hellcat proved faster at all altitudes with a slightly better climb rate over 14,000 ft, as well as was a superior diver. Though the American aircraft could roll faster at high speeds, the Zero could out-turn the Hellcat at lower speeds as well as could climb faster at lower altitudes. In combating the Zero, American pilots were advised to avoid dogfights and to utilize their superior power and high-speed performance. As with the earlier F4F, the Hellcat proved capable of sustaining a great deal more damage than its Japanese counterpart. Operational History Reaching operational readiness in February 1943, the first F6F-3s were assigned to VF-9 aboard USS Essex (CV-9). The F6F first saw combat on August 31, 1943, during an attack on Marcus Island. It scored its first kill the next day when Lieutenant (jg) Dick Loesch and Ensign A.W. Nyquist from USS Independence (CVL-22) downed a Kawanishi H8K Emily flying boat. On October 5-6, the F6F saw its first major combat during a raid on Wake Island. In the engagement, the Hellcat quickly proved superior to the Zero. Similar results were produced in November during attacks against Rabaul and in support of the invasion of Tarawa. In the latter fight, the type claimed 30 Zeros downed for the loss of one Hellcat. From late 1943 forward, the F6F saw action during every major campaign of the Pacific war. Quickly becoming the backbone of the US Navys fighter force, the F6F achieved one of its best days during the Battle of the Philippine Sea on June 19, 1944. Dubbed the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot, the battle saw US Navy fighters down massive numbers of Japanese aircraft while sustaining minimal losses. In the final months of the war, the Kawanishi N1K George proved a more formidable opponent for the F6F but it was not produced in significant enough numbers to mount a meaningful challenge to the Hellcats dominance. During the course of World War II, 305 Hellcat pilots became aces, including US Navy top scorer Captain David McCampbell (34 kills). Downing seven enemy aircraft on June 19, he added nine more on October 24. For these feats, he was awarded the Medal of Honor. During its service in World War II, the F6F Hellcat became the most successful naval fighter of all time with a total of 5,271 kills. Of these, 5,163 were scored by US Navy and US Marine Corps pilots against a loss of 270 Hellcats. This resulted in a remarkable kill ratio of 19:1. Designed as a Zero Killer, the F6F maintained a kill ratio of 13:1 against the Japanese fighter. Assisted during the war by the distinctive Chance Vought F4U Corsair, the two formed a lethal duo. With the end of the war, the Hellcat was phased out of service as the new F8F Bearcat began to arrive. Other Operators During the war, the Royal Navy received a number of Hellcats through Lend-Lease. Initially known as the Gannet Mark I, the type saw action with Fleet Air Arm squadrons in Norway, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific. During the conflict, British Hellcats downed 52 enemy aircraft. In combat over Europe, it was found to be on par with the German Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190. In the postwar years, the F6F remained in a number of second-line duties with the US Navy and was also flown by the French and Uruguayan navies. The latter used the aircraft up until the early 1960s. F6F-5 Hellcat Specifications General Length:  33 ft. 7 in. Wingspan:  42 ft. 10 in.Height:  13 ft. 1 in.Wing Area:  334 sq. ft.Empty Weight:  9,238 lbs.Loaded Weight:  12,598 lbs.Maximum Takeoff Weight:  15,514 lbs.Crew:  1 Performance Maximum Speed:  380 mphCombat Radius:  945 milesRate of Climb:  3,500 ft./min.Service Ceiling:  37,300 ft.Power Plant:  1Ãâ€" Pratt Whitney R-2800-10W Double Wasp engine with a two-speed two-stage supercharger, 2,000 hp Armament 6Ãâ€" 0.50 cal. M2 Browning machine guns6 Ãâ€" 5 in (127 mm) HVARs or 2 Ãâ€" 11 ¾ in Tiny Tim unguided rocketsup to 2,000 lbs. of bombs Sources World War II Database: F6F HellcatAce Pilots: F6F HellcatMilitary Factory: F6F Hellcat

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Superbowl ad strategy placement for Coke Zero Assignment

Superbowl ad strategy placement for Coke Zero - Assignment Example Coca Cola could connect themselves with one of the teams playing, and have some of its fans wearing jerseys with sponsorship that does not refer directly to the event (Scaria 23). Coke Zero will take advantage of the fact that most Americans do not show up to their workplaces the day after the Super Bowl, while some arrive late. Thus, Coke Zero should launch a campaign on twitter called #Zero Monday, which would be emblazoned on the fans’ jerseys. The viewers would then be directed to the Coke Zero website on searching the term. Coke Zero should launch a campaign to get the day after Super Bowl declared a Federal holiday using fans of a specific team. Some fans could be placed in the crowd with placards inviting citizens to give ideas through twitter on how to turn #Zero Monday into reality using this hash tag. Coke Zero will then seek to tie the campaign to an effort aimed at giving fans of the chosen team a day off, in which they will either mourn, or celebrate the defeat or success of their team. Low Nielsen ratings are bad news for any TV station that makes money out of advertising (Sissors 56). Therefore, for the Tulsa NBS affiliate with low ratings, it is crucial to spike their ratings in order for them to get ad placements from the Ford automobile dealership. One such way is to run special promotions and contests during the week in which Nielsen is due to conduct its sweeps. This will be aimed at spiking the ratings, which will convince the ford dealer that there are just as many people watching the station as other competitors. For example, the TV station can urge its viewers to note the programs being watched in their households, which will encourage households that have Nielsen diaries to watch shows on their channel. The station could also mark the four months during which ratings are held on their

Thursday, February 6, 2020

General Taxes Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

General Taxes - Coursework Example The holiday excludes all taxpayers regardless of their wealth. The budget of these households (the wealthiest) is more flexible and they can effortlessly time their purchases in order to take advantage of the limited-time offering (Sirot, 2011). North Carolina state administration has failed to collect enough revenues to support its collective commitment to educating the children, protecting the neighborhoods and supporting the elders. The big challenge is that the revenue collected by the state is from those who have the least capability to pay (Sirot, 2011). The sales tax produces nearly a third of the North Carolina’s revenues. However, the sales tax holiday leads in a loss of close to $12 million per year; this is the money that can fund early childhood education or enhance the educational attainment level of North Carolina young workforce. The sales tax holiday undermines the capability of the revenue system to offer support to the shared investments (Sirot,

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Introduction for Currys Essay Example for Free

Introduction for Currys Essay For this assignment I am investigating Currys and I will be getting information about my investigation from the customer service of Currys, but to do this I will need to know also a little bit about the customers profiles and what the customers think about Currys products and services that they provide. Background: Currys is the leading choice for families buying electrical devices for the home and other businesses. Currys also delivers their goods to their customers seven days a week to households and businesses throughout the UK. While delivering new products the Group collects 750,000 ends of life white goods appliances, fridges, freezers, cookers, computers, printers, radios, televisions, phones and washing machines, from customers homes each year, of which, until November, approximately 300,000 were fridges. Until November 2001 these were recycled or refurbished by a network of contractors, relieving Local Authorities, who would otherwise be obliged to collect or receive these products, of a significant burden. Many units were refurbished and resold at low cost, providing cheap products for families on low income (including through create, a Dixons supported project to re-train long term unemployed people as engineers). Others were exported for further use and the remainder recycled and disposed of following CFC gas extraction meeting environmental standards. In effect Dixons Group provided a cost-free channel for the disposal of this domestic waste and one which minimised the generation of extra journeys by householders or local authority collectors and is thus more environmentally acceptable. This shows how much Dixons group has been acting ethically. Services that Currys provides and competitive background: For my assignment, it is important to understand why retailers offer such services. Electrical retailing is highly competitive, like: Currys, Comet, John Lewis, Debenhams, House of Fraser, Argos, Powerhouse, Dixons and many thousands of small independent retailers all compete for trade in what many customers view as a product market. Low margins demonstrate the offer and that is the competitive nature of the industry. Because this is a competitive market, price pressure is intense and retailers will normally try to offer the lowest price in the market. So the customer gets used to the idea that prices will be similar in most outlets. Therefore there is a strict pressure to make different either by offering exclusive products or by excelling on service. That is why all retailers will offer competitive service offers including suitable delivery and after sales. No retailer will want to risk for too long a competitor being able to offer a new service recognized. As yet the leaving of take-back has had incomplete things on sales; however one of the two main peaks for sales, the hot summer months and this is the period of sales and a period that businesses look to maximise their sales. Customers profile: Most of customers of Currys are from a mixed group of age, gender and races. Most of customers that I personally see coming to the store of Currys in Chadwel heath are parents or just adults who are able to purchase products by credit cards or any other ways of payments. There are also other customers of Currys who are of an average age like teenagers who are able to pay musical items or games. Currys does not have any geographical customers because their customers are most of the time locally. Some customers have their information stored into Currys system due to their customers loyalty and due to Currys market researches. Currys gives to its customers a guarantee of purchasing items from their stores in case that the customer is not satisfied with the products or services that Currys provides to them, then the customer can take the products back and get a replacement or if possible get the customer can get his/her money back but this depends with the case. Some times if Currys cannot sort out the problem that the customer has with the products, they usually give to the customer the phone number of the company or the manufacturer of that particular product for further information or instructions about the usage of the product.

Monday, January 20, 2020

catcher in the rye :: essays research papers

In J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye, a young man named Holden Caulfield goes through many misadventures during a three day stay in New York. Holden acts like a careless teenager but the reader gets the feeling that he cared once and wishes that he could again. He has what is almost an obsession with death and is constantly dwelling on the death of his brother Allie, who died of leukemia. He carries Allie’s baseball mitt with him wherever he goes. He was obviously very disturbed by Allie’s death as he broke all the windows in his garage with his bare fist with such force that his hand is still messed up. His feelings toward people and relationships tend to lean toward the negative side. He usually expects the worst, part of that seems to be issues he has from the loss of his brother Allie. One of the words he uses often throughout the novel is phony. He values honesty and sincerity, and can’t stand people who try to make themselves look better in the eyes o f others. He flunks out of every school that his parents send him to including Pency, his current school. He seems to be fairly intelligent and the reader gets a sense that his problems in school are the result of lack of motivation. He isolates himself from those around him and seems to be afraid of change; always assuming it will be for the worst. He seems to have a great deal of love and respect for his sister Phoebe and his dead brother Allie. Holden is a very complex character and is difficult to understand.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The story begins on top of a hill overlooking the football stadium at Pency. Holden stands alone on top of the hill watching the game because he didn’t want to go down into the stadium with everybody else. This is a good beginning as it shows Holden’s tendency to isolate himself from others and his general dislike of people. He has flunked out of Pency, and is not supposed to return after Christmas vacation. Christmas vacation starts in three days but Holden gets fed up with his classmates and school in general and leaves to go to New York and get a hotel room. He doesn’t go home because he wants his parents to get the letter informing them of his expulsion before he comes home.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Pharmaceutical Companies

Questions for Review 1. Pharmaceutical companies do have a responsibility to distribute drugs for a low cost in developing and poorer countries. Africa’s GDP, and per capita income is very low so they cannot afford to buy top quality medicines. One main argument for this approach is the AIDS epidemic in Africa. A main argument against this is that the treatment for AIDS is very expensive to provide to a whole country for free. 2. The principal arguments of pharmaceutical companies that oppose making exceptions to IPR law for developing countries are national treatment that is equal of foreign and domestic nationals.Most-favored-nation treatment and the equal treatment of all WTO members. Also, technological progress. One last argument is how to provide adequate protection for this, and enforcing it. The arguments by NGOs and others to relax IPR laws are to end trade pressure on poor countries in health care industry disputes. 3. I would expect South Africa’s decision to levy duties on drug imports from western nations to have a negative impact on the international distribution of drugs to South Africa. If it is already expensive and hard to get drugs to AIDS patients in Africa, making them more expensive will not help. .In my opinion, I feel like this was an appropriate change of policy because it did lower prices on drugs. Some negative ramifications of this resolutions is that the price wouldn’t drop low enough. 5. I do not think it was necessary to relax IPR rules in order to ensure that adequate supplies of AIDS medications would be available for distribution in the developing world because the US took initiative to fix high drug prices and low-quality health infrastructures. 6. MNC’s have an ethical responsibility in providing funding to international organizations like the global fund to help cure AIDS

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The Problems Of Social Engineering - 1343 Words

Another way in which social engineering can take place is to have details of the clients and then access the system of Amazon posing as clients. One of the requirements in order to have access to customer information. Amazon have not been serious in screening customers and will not be able to know if the customers are who they say they are in real life. It is hard to have an understanding of the data and information about the data and the issues that are associated with the data. Another social engineering technique that can be used is the posing of an attacker/hacker as a publisher. A hacker/attacker will pose as an author through accessing and publisher information. After accessing this information, they will be able to pose as authors†¦show more content†¦It is important to have clients and customers update their personal information most of the time. By having clients change their personal information, they will be able to protect the data that they have in their ways of living. Another way of thwarting social engineering is to avoid having the customers reveal how they infrastructure of the company has been done and structured. It is through concealing the way the customers get to the system. There is also a need to have crushing of information that will reveal the data and information of the clients in the way they will have access the data and information on the website of the company. One of the measures that can be done in order to have secure and data protections is to destroy customer’s information that are no longer used. It is important to have ways in which the data will be protected and enhanced in terms of protection. The data that is found in the data environment is to have data protection so that the data will be protected in the end. Another countermeasure that should be done is to have regular updates on their data infrastructure. This is one of the ways in which the holes and security lapses will be assured in the end. It is important to have ways in which the data will be protected and enhanced in the end so that there will be secure ways in which they will be accessed and enhanced in the end. Another countermeasure is to ensure that there is to have surprise inspections of the profiles of the